18 No. 6 — Nov/Dec 2004
Marketing Before Opening San
José's Dual-Purpose Library
by Spenser Thompson
The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library has the distinction of being the
only co-managed, cityacademic library in the nation. Today's King Library
is the result of an ambitious project designed to integrate services of the
San José State University and San José Public Libraries into
a seamless operation that would serve the information literacy and service
needs of multiple communities. The marketing campaign that ran prior to the
new library's opening has been widely hailed as one of the nation's best. Thomson
Gale and Library Journal selected both San José State University
Library (SJSU) and San José Public Library as dual recipients of their
2004 Library of the Year Award. This campaign also won more, including the
2004 Best of Silver Anvil Award from the Public Relations Society of America
and a 2004 John Cotton Dana Library Public Relations Award.
This article will reveal the marketing efforts that took place behind the
scenes, before the opening. It comes from conversations with two key players,
Sharon Russell and Lorraine Oback, and from my own experience as a graduate
research assistant at SJSU's Clark Library (1999—2001). Russell, now communications
officer for the City of San José's Department of Public Works, was then
program manager for the King Library and co-manager for the grand-opening campaign.
Oback is the marketing communications director for the San José Public
Library System. Russell worked as the lead, while Oback did communications
and collateral development.
Once construction was completed in March 2003 and collections were moved
in, library communications experts had significant marketing work to do to
build toward the August 2003 public opening.
Facing Challenges and Forming Goals
This project is a particularly good marketing study because the library itself
introduced change to two distinct library cultures that had not experienced
much interoperation. In addition, the standard marketing practice of choosing
a single target audience and message was complicated, because so many people
with so many different perspectives had a stake in the outcome. Even trying
a dual primary/secondary audience focus seemed complicated when considering
a strategy for opening this library. Although this was a large project somewhat
akin to a corporation launching a new product, there was no corporate-sized
marketing budget to go along with it. In fact, corporate sponsorships had to
be nailed down on a project-by-project basis.
Part of a competent marketing plan is polling community opinions. Although
there was enthusiasm for the project from many quarters, there was also some
hesitation. For example, academic library staff members (and especially faculty!)
were concerned that the project would take away from the research collection,
while some public librarians were concerned that a structure on the edge of
college campus might be off-putting or intimidating to the community.
Another challenge was to communicate effectively what the new project was.
It was commonly referred to internally as a joint library, but what would this
mean to the outside world? While other dual-service projects existed, a project
of this size was unique.
Settling on a clear vision of the desired outcome was an important early
step. One ideal that SJSU library dean Patricia Breivik discussed with community
leaders was her core belief that libraries represent an opportunity for lifelong
learning. The new King Library would be a place where many San José residents
would be first introduced to a library as children, take advantage of the library
as SJSU students, and continue to use it as adults. This story was an excellent
way of tying together a seemingly modular offering (two libraries pasted together)
into a coherent and singular place in the life of the community. Although this
was not a formal marketing communication, it is a good example of the kind
of reframing, communication of values, and creativity that was necessary throughout
the pre-launch phase.
The marketing team set goals of reaching many diverse audiences with a limited
budget by explaining how this first-of-its-kind library would operate, by overcoming
skepticism from SJSU faculty and other groups, and by enticing nonacademic
patrons to the imposing building on the campus.
Executing the Best-Laid Plans
This huge project had many aspects that organizers had to handle.
Information Gathering: The concerns of the public were identified
through a variety of activities, including these:
naming Blue Ribbon Advisory Groups to both the university president
and the San José mayor
holding a series of public community meetings with presentations
by SJSU and city staff, architects, and the artist commissioned to create
the public art
convening a special hearing of the SJSU academic senate as
a forum for faculty to discuss their questions and anxieties about the new
studying benchmark surveys conducted by Thomas A. Childers,
Ph.D., from the Office of Institutional Research at Drexel University
When the PR team and consultants began the process of creating the strategic
communication plan for the event, they used the material gathered at all of
these input meetings and supplemented it with informal interviews of representatives
of the targeted audiences. They also conducted extensive research on approaches
used by other libraries for grand-opening activities.
Priorities and Roles: Oback and Russell stress that all the aspects
of a marketing planmessages, obstacles, and goalsshould be solidified
early. With a project of this size, it was necessary to bring in consultants
specializing in the field of event planning. In fact, two consulting firms
were necessary: One coordinated and provided the support for staging, setup,
food and beverage, and "having everyone and everything in the right place at
the right time" while the other assisted and advised the library team in securing
donors, performers, and authors; printing invitations, fliers/posters, and
giveaways; arranging media coverage for San José's diverse cultures;
and, finally, walking the political tightropes inherent in a joint cityuniversity
project. While it was still extremely difficult to pull everything together,
this approach made pre-planning and delivering the event much easier because
the logistics were divided into manageable segments, with everyone knowing
where his or her responsibility began and ended.
Media and Marketing Communication: This dual approach allowed the
team to establish a media mix based on in-kind and other sponsorships. These
included running advertising slides at local movie houses; putting cards on
buses and posters at public transportation sites, city offices, and community
centers; and placing on-air public service announcements (PSAs) and articles
in the San José Mercury News. Fortunately, the Mercury News had
followed the project from early on and was receptive to writing articles about
the opening, starting with a front-page story announcing the imminent closure
of the old main library and logistics involved in the mammoth move. The newspaper's
sponsorship of a 12-page editorial insert supplemented a paid 24-page event "advertorial" insert
to publicize the launch. As another part of the strategy focused on print vehicles
and maximizing free media publicity, local technology giant Lockheed-Martin
donated printing for trilingual fliers in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese.
PR consultant Diane McNutt handled major media contacts like MSNBC. Oback
and Nancy Stake, media relations officer at the SJSU Office of Communications
and Public Affairs, interfaced with local media contacts. The local NBC affiliate
sponsored a series of seven PSAs enacting various uses of the library. Non-English
communications, such as spot interviews on the Spanish-language Telemundo network,
were critical to reaching that important segment of the community. Two interviews
were produced, one discussing collections and services of interest to the Hispanic
community and one promoting activities at the grand-opening event.
Additional marketing/communication steps included an e-mail campaign to K-12
school district communications liaisons at the close of the 2002/03 academic
year announcing the upcoming opening; articles in campus and alumni publications
as well as in newsletters for city employees and city residents; colorful 90-foot
street banners placed downtown; and invitations sent out to 6,000 librarians,
educators, and other community and business leaders statewide.
A project that means massive change and that demands a high level of cooperation
also requires effective internal communications. To that end, organizers
established a schedule to implement things like this along the way: in-service
programs every 6 months, a "shadowing program" letting public and university
librarians observe each other's work, surveys, milestone celebrations, and
staff input sessions just to name a few. Establishing "buy-in" and a sense
of ownership was critical to bolstering other marketing communication efforts
in other areas.
Design: The foundation of collateral development is having a key message
and a unified look. "One of the biggest challenges," says Oback, "was communicating
visually the relationship of the King Library to the two library systems that
still retain their own distinct identities." In this case, a library card and
logo had to be created that would capture the unique identity of the library
while welcoming all of its clientele. This card was created with a title and
logo that represented the broad scope of the library: an open book with rays
of energy bursting from the pages and the simple inscription "San José Library." The
card reflects the library's association with a place more than with any one
institution or group. It showed that this would be everyone's library.
Learning from the Unexpected
Inevitably, an ambitious project like this hits some unexpected snags. The
planners for San José learned a few things. First, it is hazardous to
assume that an event planner can produce invitations to an event! (Clarify
such details before signing a contract.) Second, extra time must be built into
the entire process. Consensus-building alone takes time and has to be done
for many major decisions, which delays the actual execution of strategy.
Design issues can also be pitfalls. It became apparent that a graphic designer
needs to be brought on board early. Despite the multiple audiences for this
grand opening, a single design theme was necessary to be memorable and to convey
the identity of the project. This meant that, during the group meeting with
the designer, everyone had to agree on key messages and have a clear understanding
of the business problems that need to be solved and the service message that
needed to be communicated.
Ten Recommendations for Readers
Oback and Russell provided a set of best practices for the project. It was
originally published in July 2004 in CAPIO Communicator, the newsletter
of the California Association of Public Information Officials, following the
receipt of the Grand Prize Award for Intergovernmental Relations and Regional
Cooperation. They agreed to share these recommendations with MLS readers
1. Start earlier than you think you need to. You should have a set plan
to keep you focused.
2. Spread the word about your mission, vision, and values early because
this will create a positive atmosphere that can motivate employees and the
3. Worrying too much about money will halt the creative process; remember
that donors and dollars always come through.
4. Hire consultants that are connected to the community because they
have established relationships with donors, volunteers, and "movers and shakers" that
can get things done that you cannot.
5. Identify your themes and messages early. It's crucial because they
are the foundation of publicity, advertising, and outreach campaigns. You want
to "brand" the campaign(s) so people remember the library.
6. Build community awareness by recruiting and training docents early
in the process; because it will take longer than you think to get them up to
7. Know all aspects of your product, because you cannot market what
you do not know. This helps you manage your partners.
8. Focus on the positive because it energizes you; others will take
care of the negative. You must believe before you can achieve.
9. Meet early and often with internal and external stakeholders because
they can provide solutions that you may not have thought of.
10. Engage the community. It's their public building. Getting community
support is based on knowing specifically what they need.
Finally, the Grand Opening Happens
Press, SJSU students and faculty, community members, and city dignitaries
attended the dedication ceremony, which was followed by a day-long community
celebration featuring multicultural events and community booths with activities.
The planners created a carnival atmosphere that included scavenger hunts and
face-to-face meetings with noted authors. Mayor Ron Gonzales was on hand, along
with more than 22,000 citizens. The planners made sure that people experienced
many different areas in the library by holding events in specific locations,
such as the reception for artist Mel Chin on the terrace off the fifth floor
and the book bingo on the seventh floor.
SJSU library dean Breivik confirms that all the planning paid off. "Because,
up front, there were so many concerns about the new library, it was especially
important to attract campus and community people to the library's opening event.
We succeeded far beyond our expectations, and the library has been a source
of campus and community pride ever since."
Spenser Thompson is marketing specialist at Innovative
Interfaces, Inc. and holds master's degrees in psychology and library science.
His e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org.