Counting Heads Around the World
Genealogy of International Census Databases Part
Mattison • Access
Services Archivist British
may surprise many Americans to learn that Canada is home to both the oldest
European archeological remains in the New World and the oldest continuously
inhabited European settlement. Unearthed in the 1960s, the Viking camp
at L'Anse aux Meadows (Meadow Cove), Epaves Bay, Newfoundland, dates back
to the 11th century AD and confirmed the existence of Vinland in the Norse
sagas. Following upon the heels of Italian-born English maritimer John
Cabot, who reconnected Europe to Newfoundland in 1497, the French explorer
Jacques Cartier and the first representative of French government in Canada,
Jean François de la Roque, Sieur de Roberval, undertook the first colony
in 1541; it ended in failure in 1543. This was nearly 50 years before Sir Walter
Raleigh's own disaster at Roanoke, Virginia.
In 1608, under Samuel de Champlain, the French were finally successful in
establishing a permanent foothold where Quebec City is today, making it the
oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in North America. This was
a year after Jamestown, Virginia, was founded (it failed in 1624), and 2 years
before another English colony in Newfoundland (it too collapsed). The colony
of New France, as Quebec was originally known, produced the first Canadian
population count of European settlers in 1666. Many English colonies and settlements
also enumerated their own populations prior to the first U.S. national census
in 1790. Ironically, the British, in burning the White House in 1814, were
responsible for the destruction of parts of the 1790 census. As there has been
population movement between Canada and the U.S. from the 1600s right up to
today, genealogists find Canadian sources vital in their quest for family roots.
Similarly, official Canadian statistics provide an alternate view of important
social, political, and economic issues affecting both nations.
General Guides to the Census and Population Statistics
Many Web sites provide guides to genealogical and demographic resources that
include Canadian content, several of which originate outside Canada. Cyndi's
List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet [http://www.cyndislist.com],
described in part 1 of my article in the June 2002 issue of Searcher,
is considered the most comprehensive source assembled by one individual and
not owned by a company. One of the oldest Internet genealogical directories
is Stephen A. Wood's Genealogy Home Page [http://www.genhomepage.com/].
Wood also developed and maintains GenealogyPortal.com [http://www.genealogyportal.com/] with
Matthew Helm. This site has search engines for various categories of genealogical
records, including the census.
Of the few national genealogical Web site guides created by Canadians in Canada,
among the best and most current is Jessica Veinot'sCanadian Genealogy and History[http://www.islandnet.com/~jveinot/cghl/cghl.html].
There are two main sections for researchers to navigate: The top half of the
start page covers national and provincial/territorial resources, while the
bottom half has broad topic categories, including popular types of research
sources, such as census schedules and cemeteries. The Searchable category offers
convenient access to online databases of various kinds, including the census,
that, as a minimum, contain a person's name and some additional piece of personal
information such as an address, date of birth, marriage, or death. Mirroring
the site's overall structure, this page is organized geographically and then
by category. All of the census databases in the Searchable list are described
in my article. The Census page contains links to the same searchable databases
along with transcription projects and other sources describing census data.
Some of the searchable census databases on this page do not appear on the Searchable
page. Veinot's site also includes a search engine and a new listings page for
items added within the past 14 days.
Bob's Your Uncle, eh!: A Search Engine for Genealogy in Canada [http://indexes.tpl.toronto.on.ca/genealogy/index.asp] is
the Toronto Public Library's unique contribution to Internet-based family history
resources. Three pick lists — Topic, People, Places — allow you to quickly
locate relevant information. The Topics list is wide-ranging in time, from
the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) to the Vietnam War (1961-1975) and includes
a category for census records. The People list points you to ethnic, national,
or religious groups. The Places list lets you select from countries right down
to the municipal or local level. Keyword searching is not available. As of
October 1, 2002, there are 141 records returned for the census topic; most
of these link to transcriptions dating back to the early 17th century and the
first attempts to colonize Canada.
Michael Friendly at York University's Statistical Consulting Service maintains
an annotated set of nearly 600 links to Statistics and Statistical Graphics
Although not geared towards demographic statistics, it is aimed at statistics
educators; many of the links are for valuable, high-level sources of general
statistical information. Pointers to additional information about statistical
software used in academic institutions, online statistical courses and journals,
data visualization tools, and statistical humor highlight this guide. The Statistical
Society of Canada [http://www.ssc.ca/resources/links_e.html] also
offers a useful set of links specific to Canada with some coverage of sources
outside the country.
Other non-Canadian guides with international demographic data include WorldNews.com's Population.com [http://www.population.com],
the Population Reference Bureau's PopNet [http://www.popnet.org],
and Princeton University's Population Index on the Web [http://popindex.princeton.edu].
The last "provides a searchable and browsable database containing 46,035 abstracts
of demographic literature published in Population Index in the period
Guides to Canadian Historic Census Databases
The University of Toronto's Data Library Service maintains a detailed guide
to locating statistical data called Finding Canadian, U.S. and International
The category "Census of population, pre-1971 through 2001" carries a link to
a single-page table, Census of Canada: Availability of Aggregate Statistics
from the Canadian Population Census [http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/
This document describes Canadian censuses from 2001 back to 1665, most with
restricted access due to the licensing agreement with Statistics Canada. No
personal names appear in the datasets after 1901. The table includes several
19th century census publications digitized for full-text searching by Early
Canadiana Online [http://www.eoc.org].
The EOC electronic editions are only accessible to institutional or individual
subscribers, so do not bother looking for them in public databases. The data
library also carries Adobe PDF files of the tables of contents of published
census tables between 1851 and 1961. The library also produced more detailed
descriptions as Web pages on its site of the censuses between 1961 and 2001.
The Alberta Family Histories Society established the Canadian Genealogical
Projects Registry [http://www.afhs.ab.ca/registry] that
includes census records. The registry is divided between national and provincial/territorial
census projects, e.g., Lark Blackburn Szick's N.S. Census Records On Line [http://homepages.rootsweb.com/
online transcriptions, databases, or downloadable files for Nova Scotia.
Statistics Canada reissued two publications of historical census and statistics
data in electronic formats. You can read them online or download either as
Adobe Acrobat PDF files. Historical Statistics of Canada (2nd ed., 1983)
and Censuses of Canada, 1665 to 1871 (1876), a companion volume to the
former, provide a complete demographic picture of Canada from the days of New
France to 1975. Statistics Canada enhanced the value of Censuses of Canada by
linking the electronic edition's introduction to additional background information
on other federal Web sites. Only some of the census tables in this publication
are publicly available, and others require a subscription to E-STAT, one of
Statistics Canada's database services. The PDF version lacks the hyperlinks
but notes the existence of the E-STAT data.
Canadian Historic Census Databases
Canada's first national census was not held until 1871, when the Confederation
of Canada was established. This census was preceded by various local and colonial
censuses dating back to 1665 or 1666 (Statistics Canada, History of the
Census of Canada) [http://www.statcan.ca/english/census96/history.htm].
Because different provinces did not enter Confederation at the same time, some
provinces did not have population enumerations until relatively late. British
Columbia, a colony until 1871, just missed the census that year and was not
enumerated until 1881. Following the 1891 census, the city of Victoria, BC,
was unhappy with the count, so the city council commissioned its own census,
but the federal government refused to accept the higher figures. Special censuses
were also conducted in the Prairie Provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta)
beginning in 1885 when the three were known as the North-West Territories,
and then every 10 years between 1906 and 1946. A special enumeration of Manitoba
was held in 1886. On the east coast, Newfoundland remained a British colony
until 1949, and its first participation in the Canadian census did not occur
until 1951. Newfoundland census information up to 1945 is available on the
Web and described elsewhere. The only fully national Canadian nominal censuses
currently available are 1881, 1891, and 1901. This contrasts with the U.S.,
for which national censuses for researching family history date between 1790
Canadian historians and other interested parties under the leadership of the Canada
Census Committee [http://globalgenealogy.com/Census/] are
waging a battle with Statistics Canada over the release of the post-1901
nominal census schedules.
The most recent Canadian census was taken on May 15, 2001. The first release
of statistical data from the 2001 census occurred on March 12, 2002 [http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/release/index.cfm].
The 2001 census section of the Stats Canada site includes extensive background
information and supporting resources.
1675-1945, Newfoundland: Newfoundland's Grand Banks: Genealogical
and Historical Data for the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador [http://www.chebucto.org],
Newfoundland's Grand Banks. Founded as Project 21 in April 1998 by Bill Crant
to digitize and transcribe the 1921 Newfoundland census (234,000 names),
this nonprofit site, to which numerous volunteers contribute their time and
energy, is hosted by the Chebucto Community Net in Nova Scotia. The site's
mission statement notes that it is "currently the largest storehouse of original
resource material relating to Newfoundland in North America." It not only
carries transcriptions of the census records from 1675 to 1945, but several
complete 19th and 20th century city directories, transcriptions of vital
statistical records (births, marriages, and deaths), church and cemetery
records, and ship passenger lists.
1706-1891, Quebec: Georia [http://www.georia.ulaval.ca/],
Laboratoire de géographie historique, Centre interuniversitaire d'études
québécoises, Université Laval and University of Toronto.
You can query and display aggregate census data for the province of Quebec
with a Geographic Information System (GIS). The interface and the data are
entirely in French.
1841-1901, Prince Edward Island: Prince Edward Island Census Data
Public Archives and Records Office. This site is a fine example of a public-private
partnership. The 1841 census database was developed by the archives and a
community computer network with funding from Canada's Digital Collections program [http://collections.ic.gc.ca/census/].
The 1891 and 1901 data searches are a joint project of the Archives and the
Prince Edward Island Genealogical Society.
1842-1901, Ontario: Halton (County) Census Index, 1842-1901 [http://www.hhpl.on.ca/localhistory/census.htm],
hosted on HALINET, a community computer network, stems from a partnership of
historical and genealogical societies.The census database is one of several
on a page titled Halton's Historical and Newspaper Records. The 1842 census
date is not a typo, as census returns were not conducted on a regular schedule
until 1871. Searches of this head of household and strays index cover all the
censuses for this county between the dates shown. The Federation of Family
History Societies in the U.K. [http://www.ffhs.org.uk/General/Help/Strays.htm] defines
census stray as "people resident outside their county of birth."
1851-1901, Ontario: Ontario GenWeb's Official Census Project [http://users.rootsweb.com/~ongenpro/census].
Ontario is Canada's most populous province and third largest in land area,
so it is not surprising that its family historians lead the country in large-scale
transcription projects. Established in March 1999, this project aims to provide
free, online transcriptions of all census schedules for Ontario except for
1871, which is already available for searching in two other locations. Free
access is the rule here and the site threatens legal action against anyone
profiting from the sale of census data from this site.
1851-1901, Ontario: Town of Ingersoll Historical Census [http://www.ocl.net/census/],
Oxford County Library, Ingersoll, Ontario. This database consists of transcribed
data from six census years. As explained on introductory pages for each year,
the content for each database differs as a result of changes to the kinds of
1851-1901, Quebec: Population et histoire sociale de la ville de
Centre interuniversitaire d'études québécoises, Université Laval.
This research project is transcribing census schedules for Quebec City between
1851 and 1901.
1871 April 2, Ontario: Federal Census of 1871 (Ontario Index) [http://www.archives.ca],
Library and Archives of Canada, ArchiviaNet: On-line Research Tool. Compiled
by the Ontario Genealogical Society in cooperation with the Library and Archives
of Canada, the database is a head-of-household index. An alternate site with
a different search interface hosted by Queens University, Kingston, Ontario,
is the 1871 Census of Canada: Ontario: Searchable Database of Heads & Strays [http://xcat.stauffer.queensu.ca/census/].
Unlike the Library and Archives of Canada presentation of the same data, the
results list reveals the full database record without requiring additional
1877, 1881, 1891, Okanagan Valley and Yale District, British Columbia: Nominal
Census Data for the Southern Interior of British Columbia [http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/census/index.html],
Living Landscapes: Okanagan University College and Royal British Columbia
Museum. Directed by Dr. Duane Thomson and Dr. John Belshaw, teams of students
entered census data into a Microsoft Access database from an 1877 census
by a Catholic missionary (408 records), an 1877 Indian Reserve Commission
census (1,338 records), as well as the federal censuses for the Yale District
of 1881 (8,951 records) and 1891 (13,497 records). The 1901 census for Yale
District is also being tackled.
1881 April 4, Canada: 1881 Canadian Census (CD-ROM), Genealogical
Society of Utah (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). Released in
March 2002, this is a transcription of selected portions of the entire census
of over 4 million individuals on four discs.
1881 April 4, Canada: 1881 Canadian Census Project [http://prdh3.demo.umontreal.ca/dillon/1881/1881.html],
Département de Démography/CIED, Université de Montréal.
Directed by Dr. Lisa Dillon, this project anticipates having a beta database
of the 1881 census available to social science researchers by August 2003.
The database, with 46 fields, contains more than 4 million records and will
integrate with other historical census databases prepared by similar projects,
in particular, the international North Atlantic Population Project [http://www.pop.umn.edu/napp/index.html] and
the Canada Century Research Infrastructure (Institute of Canadian Studies,
University of Ottawa and partners) [http://www.canada.uottawa.ca/ccri/ and
elsewhere in this article]. A useful compilation, dated May 2002, of other
census projects appears in the Canadian Historical Population Data Projects table [http://prdh3.demo.umontreal.ca/
I have summarized all projects with an Internet-searchable database.
1881 and 1891, British Columbia: Vancouver Island 1881 Census [http://history.mala.bc.ca/content/census/1881/] and Vancouver
Island 1891 Census [http://history.mala.bc.ca/content/census/1891/],
Patrick Dunae, History Department, Malaspina University College and University
of Victoria, BC. Part of a subject gateway to Vancouver Island history called
viHistory.ca, these databases were initially constructed from transcriptions
of the nominal census schedules by the Public History Group at the University
of Victoria in 1990 and 1991.
1891, Ontario: Public-Use Microsample of the 1891 Census of Canada
for Ontario [http://www.uoguelph.ca/history/census/index.htm],
Department of History, University of Guelph. This project is similar to the
Canadian Families Project in compiling a 5 percent sample, except that it
just focuses on the 1891 Ontario census.
1891, 1901, Alberta (Northwest Territories): Census Links [http://users.rootsweb.com/~canab/1891index.html],
Darlene Homme, Alberta GenWeb. The Edmonton Branch of the Alberta Genealogical
Society hosts an index to the entire 1901 census for the Alberta District of
the Northwest Territories [http://www.agsedm.edmonton.ab.ca/census.html].
1901 March 31, Canada: Canada Census, 1901 [http://www.archives.ca/],
Library and Archives of Canada, ArchiviaNet: On-line Research Tool. A complete
and free digital facsimile of the 1901 census schedules of individuals (Schedule
1) and real property (Schedule 2, land and buildings, including a street address
or property legal description) was quietly introduced in May 2002. The microfilm
from which the digital images were produced was created in 1955 and the original
paper schedules destroyed. The microfilm quality ranges from excellent to poor.
1901 March 31, Canada: Canadian Families Project[http://web.uvic.ca/hrd/cfp/].
Based at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, this interdisciplinary
research project studies Canadian families using a 5 percent sample of the
1901 census. The project began in 1995 and you can obtain a copy of the database
by contacting Dr. Eric Sager, Canadian Families Project, Department of History,
University of Victoria [http://web.uvic.ca/history/].
The database contains information from Schedule 1 on 265,286 people and on
50,943 properties from Schedule 2.
1901 March 31, British Columbia: 1901 Census Victoria, British Columbia
and Southern Vancouver Island [http://www.rootsweb.com/~canbc/1901vic_cen/1901vic.htm].
Compiled and transcribed by Hugh Armstrong, this transcription requires a
two-step search process. Armstrong added historical data for selected individuals
from other sources to the census transcription and supplements his site with
background information about the census.
1901 March 31, Dawson City, Yukon Territory: Gold Rush Database [http://www.yukongenealogy.com/index.html],
Government of Yukon. Originally compiled for the centennial of the Klondike
Gold Rush in 1997 and previously hosted under the name Dawson Museum/Filson
Pan for Gold Database [http://www.gold-rush.org/ghost-07.htm],
the 1901 census records contain 68,387 entries.
Liberating Statistics Canada
All sources of Canadian population statistics lead back to Statistics Canada [http://www.statcan.ca/],
the national agency responsible for the census. Statistics Canada also produces
longitudinal survey data. The agency promotes and distributes its data through
a variety of free and subscription-based print and electronic publications
and databases. Most of the aggregate data churned out at the end of every 5-year
census is only available by subscription through the CANSIM II database. Two
sections of the Web site under the categories "Canadian Statistics" and "Community
Profiles" offer free tabular data on every type of statistic collected by the
The Data Liberation Initiative [http://www.statcan.ca/english/Dli/contents.htm] began
as a 5-year pilot program in 1996 and in April 2001 became a regular program.
Through a cooperative arrangement with Statistics Canada, Canadian academic
institutions can subscribe to data sources rather than buy them as individual
files. Statistics Canada, as the result of a national task force report issued
by the Canadian Initiative on Social Statistics in 1998, also helped fund the
establishment of Research Data Centres (RDC) [http://www.statcan.ca/english/rdc/index.htm] that
makes use of this liberated data. The sites make Statistics Canada electronic
data available to academic researchers under the federal Statistics Act.
Interestingly, researchers with approved projects for such access are "sworn
in ...as 'deemed employees.'" The University of British Columbia Research Data
Centre Web site further notes that the RDCs are "extensions of Statistics Canada
offices, with a full-time Statistics Canada employee at each site to screen
data and ensure compliance with confidentiality policies and procedures. ...
All data sets have been stripped of personal details — such as names, addresses,
and phone numbers — that could be used to identify particular individuals" [Questions
and Answers, http://data.library.ubc.ca/rdc/].
Statistics Canada provides access to its census- and survey-derived data through
its CANSIM II (Canadian Socio-economic Information Management; http://cansim2.statcan.ca/]
database available on its Web site, commercial agencies, and selected academic
institutions that participate in the Data Liberation Initiative. The data is
organized into tables (called matrices in CANSIM I), and within the tables
by series. Although you can search CANSIM II at no cost through Stats Canada,
you will pay to access the statistical data. Searches are by subject categories,
keywords, or specific table or series ID numbers. Statistics Canada provides
access to numeric data from the pre-1971 censuses through its E-STAT service [http://estat.statcan.ca/],
aimed at educators at all levels. Students can use E-STAT from home via their
institution's user ID and password.
While Canada's Native population is enumerated as part of the national census,
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, a federal department responsible for this
population group, provides summary tables on its Statistics page [http:/www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/sts/index_e.html].
You will also find a convenient link here to Statistics Canada's 1996 aboriginal
statistics page [http://www.statcan.ca/english/census96/jan13/nalis9.htm].
Stats Canada will release 2001 census data on the aboriginal peoples of Canada
in the summer of 2003. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada also maintains a First
Nation Profiles Web site [http://sdiprod2.inac.gc.ca/FNProfiles/] that
serves as a database to the aboriginal population and includes statistical
Quebec Census and Demographic Databases
French-language genealogical resources about the province of Quebec may be
found through some of the guides listed elsewhere and through provincial government
Web sites. The Archives nationales du Québec [http://www.anq.gouv.qc.ca/] contains
links to other sites (Autres sites) [http://www.anq.gouv.qc.ca/ANQ-H-04.html],
including several family history organizations. Some major genealogical sites
in Quebec are Le Centre de généalogie francophone d'Amérique [http://www.genealogie.org/],
Denis Beauregard's FrancoGène [http://www.francogene.com/]; La
Fédération des familles-souches québécoises inc. [http://www.ffsq.qc.ca/]; Fédération
québécoise des sociétés de généalogie [http://www.federationgenealogie.qc.ca/];
and Société généalogique canadienne-française [http://www.sgcf.com].
The Quebec Ministère de la Culture et des Communications also maintains
a list of links, including ones to genealogical societies, under the heading Associations,
organismes et regroupements nationaux [http://www.mcc.gouv.qc.ca/pamu/organis/aratitre.htm].
In 1966, the Université de Montréal began reconstructing the
historic population of Quebec prior to 1800 with baptism, marriage, burial,
census, immigrant, and hospital records through its Programme de recherche
en démographie historique (PRDH) [http://www.genealogy.umontreal.ca/en/main.htm].
The Institut de la statistique du Québec (Quebec Institute of
Statistics or ISQ) [http://www.stat.gouv.qc.ca/] is
the province's statistical bureau. While site pages are bilingual, statistical
tables are normally presented in French. The ISQ also operates the Centre
d'accès aux données de recherche de l'Institut de la statistique
du Québec (CADRISQ) [http://www.stat.gouv.qc.ca/cadrisq/] that
promotes the academic use of ISQ data for social science research. The University
of Montreal houses and hosts the UNESCO Institute for Statistics [http://www.uis.unesco.org/uis/index.html].
The Quebec Inter-University Centre for Social Statistics (QICSS; Centre
interuniversitaire québécois de statistiques sociales, CIQSS) [http://www.ciqss.umontreal.ca/],
established in July 2000, is Quebec's only Research Data Centre for accessing
confidential Statistics Canada data files. Georia is a historical demographic
project utilizing census data via a GIS database developed by the Université Laval's
Laboratoire de géographie historique and the University of Toronto.
Another Quebec research center for population studies is the Institut interuniversitaire
de recherches sur les populations (Interuniversity Institute for Population
Research, IREP) [http://www.irep.umontreal.ca/].
The institute's Project BALSAC [http://www.uqac.uquebec.ca/balsac/],which
started in 1972, is attempting to trace the genealogy of French Canadian
families using birth, marriage, burial, and other records. The results of
this ambitious undertaking are expected to have value for genetic research.
developed by the Library Subcommittee of the Conference of Rectors and Principals
of Quebec Universities (CREPUQ), provides bilingual access to Statistics Canada
obtained via the Data Liberation Initiative and other survey data sources.
Canadian Academic Research into the Census and Demographics
The big news this past year for Canadian historical demographers was the announcement
in January 2002 of $5.2 million in funding by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation,
a federal government corporation, towards the Canadian Century Research Infrastructure
The CCRI was officially launched on June 13, 2002. Headquartered at the Institute
of Canadian Studies, University of Ottawa, this national private-public academic
research partnership will draw upon existing and new census database work to
create "integrated census micro databases from 1871 to 2001" [http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/cdn/ccri.htm].
The project received matching funds from each province and its partners for
a total budget over 5 years of $13.4 million. The main thrust of the CCRI from
a database perspective is to standardize the variables within the census schedules.
Because other projects already cover the 19th century Canadian censuses and
databases already exist for the 1971 to 1991 censuses, the CCRI will focus
its initial efforts on the censuses from 1911 to 1951.
Canadian historic census and current demographic databases hold their own
against their counterparts around the world. Canadian family historians, academic
researchers, and government policy makers continue to establish partnerships
that permit reasonable access to data, as well as transcribe existing data
and place it online for free or pay-per-viewing display.
The Canadian Genealogy Centre [http://cgc-ccg.archives.ca] is
under development as a joint, 3-year effort by the Library and Archives
of Canada (the new name for an amalgamation of the National Archives
of Canada and the National Library of Canada). The National Archives
of Canada's GenealogyResearch [http://www.archives.ca/02/020202_e.html] and
the National Library of Canada's Genealogy and Family History at the
National Library of Canada [http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/6/5/index-e.html] pages
provide access to existing walk-in and online resources, including the
digitized 1901 census schedules created by the National Archives of Canada,
and its publication Tracing Your Ancestors in Canada[http://www.archives.ca/04/0420_e.html].
Preliminary details released in a June 2002 report by the National Library
of Canada indicate that "an initial prototype of a Web site has been
developed and will continue to be refined over the next few months. Eventually,
single-portal access to online research tools and large bodies of authoritative
content will be offered"
The Canadian Genealogy Centre is coordinating a project to index the
1901 census through volunteers (Census of Canada, 1901, Helpful Hints) [http://www.archives.ca/02/020122/02012208_e.html].
Update on Canadian Crown Copyright
Canadian copyright law is much simpler than the United States'. There
is only one piece of legislation at the federal level to deal with. Copyright
duration is less (life of the author plus 50 years for literary works)
than in the U.K. and the U.S. (increased respectively in 1996 and 1998
to life of the author plus 70 years). A constitutional challenge to the
1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act is before the Supreme Court
(for current information see law professor Dennis S. Karjala's Opposing
Copyright Extension [http://www.law.asu.edu/HomePages/
The Canadian government intends to amend the Copyright Act, a
process started in 2001, in order to harmonize it with developments in
the U.S. relating to the protection of electronic or digital resources
and to allow Canada to ratify the World Intellectual Property Organization
(WIPO) copyright treaties.
Unlike the U.S., where works created by federal government employees,
unless otherwise agreed to in writing, automatically fall into the public
domain, Canada shares the concept of Crown or government copyright with
the United Kingdom. The Library and Archives of Canada policy on copyright [http://www.archives.ca/02/0203_e.html],
while not waiving Crown copyright, permits noncommercial use of material
from its Web site so long as certain conditions are met. Essentially,
this permits the transcription and creation of census databases by family
historians or organizations as long as no fees are charged.
Acadian to Cajun
Like the U.S., Canada is home to an immigrant population and system
of governance that displaced Native Americans on their land through conquest,
disease, and treaty. The Canadian aboriginal population was not the only
historic example in Canada, however, of a cultural group being forced
from its homeland. French settlers in Acadia, Nova Scotia, were expelled
by the British in the 1750s. Those who migrated to Louisiana, at that
time under the control of Spain, are known today as Cajuns (a shortened
form of Acadian). Tim Hebert's gateway for Acadians in the U.S. and Canada, Acadian-Cajun
Genealogy & History [http://www.acadian-cajun.com/],
contains details of this cultural metamorphosis. Hebert is creating and
linking to transcriptions of all Acadian census records (1671-1752) compiled
in Canada. Hebert's site will also link to many other Web resources about
More Census and Statistics Software and Resources from Canada and
A Canadian company, Beyond 20/20 Inc. [http://www.ivation.com/],
founded in 1987 as Ivation Datasystems Inc., markets and provides consulting
services for its software Beyond 20/20. According to its Web site, many
statistical agencies around the world use its services and software to
disseminate census and other kinds of numeric data.
One important piece of census software that did not get mentioned in
part 1 of my article or Miriam A. Drake's article, "The U.S. Census Bureau
in the 21st Century" (Searcher, June 2002), is the Census Bureau's CSPro (Census
and Survey Processing System) [http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/cspro/index.html].
This multilingual, public domain software, jointly developed by the Bureau
and international corporate partners, will replace two older Census Bureau
programs, IMPS and ISSA. Currently only available for the Windows platform,
development of CSPro was funded by the U.S. Agency for International
Development. The program provides features for data entry, editing, cross-tabulation,
and data dissemination. CSPro relies on user-created data dictionaries,
so while it will not solve the problem of garbage in, garbage out, it
does provide a means for international projects to standardize on data
input and distribution. A map viewer tool allows you to create semi-interactive
thematic maps reflecting your data content. Map shapes can be imported
from ESRI's ArcView GIS program.
If you need some assistance understanding the specialized terminology
of social science data libraries, look no further than the Glossary
of Social Science Computer and Social Science Data Terms [http://odwin.ucsd.edu/glossary/] at
the University of California San Diego's Social Sciences and Humanities
Mattison's e-mail address is David.Mattison@gems3.gov.bc.ca