The Better Mousetrap
Information Pricing Mousetrap
by Matthew McBride, Principal Information Consultant,
With this issue, we introduce a new columnist,
Matthew McBride, who will share responsibilities
for "The Better Mousetrap" column with Nancy Lambert.
Searcher Lambert will continue to concentrate on
patent information, while Searcher McBride will
focus on other areas of science and technology.
With a background as a biological researcher,
McBride has turned to librarianship with an emphasis
on competitive intelligence. He has special strengths
in biological, pharmaceutical, chemistry, and engineering
areas. He has worked for Dialog, but now has started
his own information consulting service.
His first column focuses on his old employer's
new pricing scheme. We have promised him that all
the rest of his columns will be easier and less
controversial. (And he believed us!)
As a former Dialog information consultant, I had the
opportunity to learn, love, and understand the Dialog
system from a unique perspective. When you get up-close
and personal with it, there is something very special
about the command language, almost simplistic. Students,
new users, and even seasoned information professionals
see Dialog as a very complex and dangerous beast: The
language is tricky, the content is deep and varied,
and the steep prices can easily cause sticker shock.
Dialog information consultants serving users would
try to tackle the first two challenges through training
and support and to solve the third by helping users
identify more cost-effective search habits or alternate
sources. The high cost of searching is the primary
inhibition to developing more effective search habits
for most users.
Well, 2003 brings an annual price increase that departs
from raising standard output costs. Instead, the increase
focuses on changes in some browsing formats, in some
Alert charges, and a few other areas. Considering the
difficult economic times, is the end result good for
Dialog? Is it good for users? Or is it a decent compromise
for everyone? Let's first take a look at it from....
The Dialog Perspective
I spoke with Roy Martin, Jr., president and chief
executive officer of Dialog, about the recent price
increase, and he was quite surprised to see the reaction
from some users (see the "Q and A" sidebar on page
41 for more details). During our conversation, we specifically
discussed the planning process for Dialog's pricing
strategy, as well as the price increases for 2002.
Martin told me:
Traditionally, Dialog has had annual price increases,
and sometimes they have been announced. Before I got
here, there were a couple of years that they really
weren't announced that effectively or efficiently.
We sat down this year to look at our pricing schedules,
including the input provided to us by our customer
Before we do something like this, we review it with
them to get their feedback, their inputs, which we
inevitably incorporate. Ultimately, our advisory board
was supportive of what we were going to do. I would
suggest that their support, in the absence of a lot
of chatter on most of the listservs, combined with
the absence of virtually any feedback from customers
into our office here (in Cary, NC), basically says
that what we set out to do has been received by the
I also think that the changes won't be felt until
users see the impact on their monthly statement.
Mr. Martin further stated, "What we set out to do
is not fundamentally change our pricing. When we went
through all of this, the biggest decision we had to
make was not to raise prices this year. Should this
be a year where Dialog holds the line on prices or
not?" And considering the difficult economic times,
Dialog decided to hold the line.
But does that mean the resulting price increases
are the best solution? It depends on your typical usage
of Dialog, therefore we turn to....
The User Perspective
I polled SLA users, division listservs, and others
to gather feedback on the perceived impact of the recent
price increases on search habits, usage, and budgets.
From e-mail and interviews, all the users indicated
that they understand periodic price increases are necessary
for the products and services that they use. Aggregators
and information providers need to raise prices to cover
their fixed costs. Last year's price increases for
output on Dialog (approximately 6.5 percent) were counterbalanced
by the option for users to reduce their search costs
by using connect-time pricing, instead of DialUnits.
This year, however, three areas in particular troubled
1. Restriction of Free Formats
The elimination of free formats from selected files
could lead one to assume the beginning of a trend.
On one side, Dialog argues that the free formats are
valuable output formats, and hence a charge for those
records is reasonable. But die-hard searchers know
that these formats are merely a means to an end and
believe they should be considered a component of the
search cost. If you must pay for browsing formats,
then either the format should have some useful value
beyond browsing, or the cost for those records should
be deducted if you subsequently purchase the full format
record. Is a company name worth 25 cents? It depends
on how much browsing you need to do to identify your
Let's get a clear perspective on what Format 6 really
gets you. Across most company directory files, the
Format 6 charge is now $0.25, which generally gets
you just the company name. In terms of relative value,
the new format in these files now costs an average
of 7.5 percent of the full record cost (range of 0.7
to 20.8 percent). Format 6 in SEC and financial databases
now costs $0.10, or approximately 1.8 percent of the
full record cost (0.1 to 5.4 percent). Finally, Format
6 in patent files is now $0.25 for titles and $0.50
for titles plus class codes. In relative value, the
new format charge in patent files now costs an average
of 6.5 percent of the full record cost (3.2 to 9.4
So what's the big problem with paying for browsing
formats, especially since several files already carry
a charge for this format and have for some time? It
really isn't a problem, as long as the browsing format
contains useful data and the pricing matches the value
of the data received.
One thing still troubles me: Under DialUnit pricing,
you get charged to BEGIN a file, SELECT records, and
even to TYPE records out. So I am already getting charged
to browse when my cost is calculated using DialUnits.
According to the example searches, I would be charged
$0.44 in DialUnits to TYPE a record in Format 6 from
file 584. In this example, the company name alone cost
me $0.69, not $0.25. Granted, it takes the same amount
of processing time to TYPE a single record or 30 all
at once, but it does cause you to think that the cost
of browsing is more than just the record.
2. Double-Hit for IP Searchers
Searchers working in the intellectual property literature patents,
trademarks, etc. are particularly worried that
the strategies they use to locate relevant records
could be jeopardized. Many have begun to closely scrutinize
the effect of the changes. First, Dialog now imposes
a RANK charge of $0.02/document in five full-text patent
files. RANK charges are already present in selected
Dialog files, including some IP files (specifically
Derwent). It may seem like a minor price increase to
casual users, however it is not uncommon for patent
professionals to RANK 10,000 or more records in a single
search, which would now cost in excess of $200. In
addition to the new RANK charges, Dialog is imposing
a charge for the formerly free Formats 6 and 8 in 12
patent files. Many IP searchers feel this represents
a double-hit on them.
Considering that patent information professionals
comprise such a devoted core of Dialog users, it is
extremely surprising to see a price increase installed
that would impact on their search habits in two separate
areas. If they haven't already, serious patent users
should probably consider some of the fixed-price options
now available for patent data on Dialog. Remember that
fixed-price options are renegotiated annually based
on your actual usage (not billing), so you should still
exercise caution when determining the impact of any
price increases on your search habits. Fixed pricing
may merely defer some of the cost increases to subsequent
3. Pricing Inconsistencies
A few pricing conditions appeared on the system that
were inconsistent with the announced changes in the
period immediately after the announcement, however
Dialog attributed them to a premature evaluation of
the changes. After a brief review at the beginning
of March, it does appear that corrections have been
made, although a few more may be necessary.
For example, repeating the steps taken by Mary Ellen
Bates in her NewsBreak article covering the price increase [http://www.infotoday.com/newsbreaks/nb030203-2.htm] posted
February 3rd, 2003, I began a OneSearch group for corporate
directories (CODIR), selected the most recent update
(S UD=9999), and then typed out the first record from
each file in FREE format (T 1/FREE/1 FROM EACH). Although
most files notified me that FREE was not a valid format
name, a record from SoftBase (File 256) was delivered
in Format 8 for $0.45, though Format 8 is listed as
a FREE Format in the Bluesheet. A record from Corporate
Affiliations (File 513) was delivered in Format 6 for
$0.50, even though FREE is not listed as a delivery
format and the request for a free format record should
have triggered an invalid format warning.
Alternatively, a sample search in U.S. Patents Fulltext
(File 654), where Format 6 costs $0.25, delivered the
intended record, however, the system charged me for
Format 16 instead. Strangely enough, Format 16 costs
only $0.15, yet it essentially contains Format 6 plus
any image data.
Given the 548 files in the Dialog, each with multiple
delivery formats, any reasonable person would expect
a few inconsistencies, and I am sure Dialog will make
any necessary corrections as soon as possible.
What Hasn't Changed
It's not all dire news; much has not changed. Connect-time
and DialUnit charges have not increased for any file
in 2003, and output charges for most files have remained
steady. Service fees have also stayed level for all
regions except for the U.K.
The Dialog Finder Files remain one of the best values
on the system. The journal name, company name, and
product code finders are still free of charge, while
DIALINDEX increased modestly in cost to $2/DialUnit
(still $0.67/minute). One note: If you are a heavy
DIALINDEX user searching across all or multiple files,
considerswitching your account to connect time to save
a bundle. The following sample search proves why: B
411;SF ALL;S PDA? ? OR HANDHELD? ?;RF;COST. This search
costs an average of $5.10 under DialUnits (2.64 DU),
but just $0.64 under connect time. Smaller DIALINDEX
searches do not yield such a dramatic benefit, and
very small searches may be cheaper under DialUnits.
If you haven't thought of switching, consider reviewing
the article: Bates, Mary Ellen "Dialog Pricing Redux:
Deja Vu All over Again," Searcher, vol. 10,
no. 3, March 2002, pp. 36+; also available at http://www.infotoday.com/searcher/mar02/bates.htm.
The Bottom Line
Dialog, or any other vendor, is well within its rights
to raise prices to a level that meets user ideas of
perceived value. For many of us, that value lies in
the powerful command-searching capabilities of the
system. I can spend hours scouring the Internet trying
to find an article of interest, or 30 seconds on Dialog.
However, I am concerned with the increased complexity
of Dialog's pricing strategy.
Janice McCallum of JMC Consulting, a former Dialog
insider, is a consultant who specializes in pricing
information goods and services. "It appears that Dialog
is eschewing the price-simplification strategy it began
in the early '90s and is back to a cost-recovery plan.
The tactic of adding new fees for existing commands
and search practices forces customers to make a decision
about what commands they can afford to use every time
they carry out a search."
I would agree, especially since the intentions of
any price increase are not nearly as important as how
they are perceived by the average searcher. In this
case, power searchers are anticipating the need to
modify their search habits, a user perception that
Dialog should avoid. Janice noted further, "Perhaps
more important, they risk driving away new prospects
who will be scared off by the complexity of the pricing
scheme." Again, only time will tell. Dialog has several
interfaces and price plans to meet the needs of different
searching styles, users, and budgets, so new and seasoned
users with pricing concerns do have alternatives.
In the end, Dialog simply could have increased output
charges by a few percentage points and thereby passed
along a greater cost increase than theone implemented
for 2003. A small increase in output charges would
have been less than the increase for 2002, much more
simple to calculate the impact on your budget, and
possibly more expensive on the monthly bill. According
to Roy Martin, this is exactly what Dialog didn't want
to do to its customers. All of the individuals that
I spoke with that had prior knowledge of the pricing
strategy for 2003 indicated that Dialog was trying
to search for the best solution in difficult economic
times for its customers. Yet, I expect the outcry from
most users would have been much less if there was small
increase in output charges, because it does not impact
The result of this price increase is that the power
searcher may need to modify their search habits to
avoid or lessen the impact of these new costs. Should
it be necessary to develop workarounds to meet your
information objectives at a reasonable cost? No, but
I also don't think it is healthy for users of Dialog
to try find flaws in the pricing structure to get around
these increases. Instead, you should voice any concerns
directly to the company. Dialog has stated that the
traditional pricing model for power searchers emphasizes
and rewards precision and sophistication. On the other
hand, additional fees for existing commands, as well
as the already-imposed 10 percent surcharge on DialUnit
pricing for DialogClassic via telnet, does lend credibility
to the perception that it is becoming more expensive
to be a command searcher on Dialog.
Ultimately it's up to you, the user, to determine
whether the price paid for any vendor's services, features,
and content is worth the value received.
SUMMARY OF DIALOG PRICING CHANGES FOR 2003
Below is a summary of some of the pricing changes
for 2003 on the various Dialog platforms taken from
the letter sent to all Dialog customers on January
Connect time and DialUnits charges
Full format document charge for
news files increase from $2.75 to $2.95/document.
Charges ranging between $0.05 to
$0.50 inaugurated for formats 6 and 8 in 90 selected
Charges of $0.25 for patent titles
and $0.50 for patent titles and class codes inaugurated
in 12 selected patent files.
All output in remaining files remains
unchanged (versus 6.5 percent increase for 2002).
RANK charge of $0.02/document implemented
in five full-text patent files.
Alert charges for individual news
files increase from $2.15 to $2.95/week (20 bundled
Alert charges for DialogSelect,
DialogPRO, and Dialog Intranet Toolkit inaugurated
Charges for DIALINDEX (File 411)
increase from $1.75 to $2.00/DialUnit (no Connect
Time increase). All other Finder files continue
to remain free under both DialUnits and Connect
Telecommunications fee increases
from $13 to $14/hour.
Service fees billed monthly rather
U.K. user ID fees for up to five
users increase from $10 to $14/month/ID (equal
to U.S. price).
Dialog DataStar search fees increased
an average of 6 percent (connect time), and output
charges increase an average of 1 percent (compared
to increases of 6.5 percent in 2002).
For more detailed supporting documentation on
the 2003 pricing changes effective February 1, 2003,
Q&A with Roy M. Martin, Jr.
President and Chief Executive Officer of Dialog
March 4, 2003
What is your vision for the viability of the telecom,
search, and output cost pricing strategy currently
used by Dialog and other vendors?
I think that over time, pricing models in the industry
will continue to evolve as customer and user requirements
change. As information delivery continues to migrate
across the enterprise, different pricing models that
are more attuned to this growing user group especially
those that involve fixed price options are
likely to continue to emerge. For power searchers
who have a level of sophistication and knowledge
of content and sources that goes beyond that of most
enterprise users, traditional pricing models that
emphasize and reward precision and sophistication
will likely remain.
I think that most vendors of broad-based information
that reach diverse audiences, such as Dialog, will
continue to provide a range of options for customers,
depending on their unique needs.
On the surface, the recent price increases seem
very minor. However, the greatest financial impact
is on the independent to small business user with
a limited budget. What Dialog options do they have
to return to predictable costs?
I think what you refer to when you say "on the
surface, the recent price increases seem very minor" is
the reality of the pricing changes from Dialog this
year. Most of our users will see very minimal changes
in pricing. This contrasts with significant price
increases in prior years.
We think we've done a good job in 2003 at holding
the line on prices, and we believe our users will
reward us for this. The vast majority of Search Fee,
Output Fee, and Services Fee charges are unchanged.
As a result, our belief is there is not a significant
impact to small business users that is different
than that of other customers.
Regarding small business users, I think it is important
to point out two things. First, we launched a new
line of products in 2002 specifically designed for
small businesses. The products in this line share
one common feature unlimited usage of information
for a fixed monthly price across a number of selected
databases. The product line, DialogPRO (Predictable
Research Online), has been well received by customers
and the media alike. We are continuing to expand
this line throughout 2003, offering more options.
Secondly, throughout the past 2 years, we have
implemented numerous pricing changes to help our
small business customers, directly in response to
the feedback they provided to us. These changes have
combined to significantly lower the cost of searching
on Dialog for this segment of our customer base.
For instance, we eliminated the minimum monthly
fee of $75 last year, which was instituted by prior
ownership of Dialog. We reintroduced Connect Time
as a searching option to DialUnits. Connect Time,
which was eliminated when DialUnits were originally
introduced, provides a high-value, lower-cost searching
option for many types of content on Dialog.
Additionally, major performance enhancements to
Dialog systems through increased capital investment
by Thomson have resulted in faster response times
Dialog, which have effectively lowered the overall cost of search fees significantly.
Most notably, in October of 2001 we reduced DialUnit fees on many platforms.
For instance, the reduction in DialUnit search fees at that time was over
40 percent on DialogWeb. And of course, half of the Dialog product platforms
have no charges for searching, including Dialog Select, Dialog1, and our
Custom Solutions products, all of which are very popular among our small
With all the discussions about change, what hasn't
changed in terms of pricing?
I'm glad you asked that question, because what
hasn't changed is the real story. The facts regarding
our price reviews are that 526 of the 548 files on
Dialog have no change in search fee pricing, and
the 22 that do are a direct result of price increases
by information providers that affect all distributors
of this information. There are no changes to DialUnit
fees. There are no changes to Output fees for 335
files. And in 99 of the 100 countries where we have
customers, there are no changes whatsoever to our
services fee. We are very proud of our ability in
2003 to help our customers through difficult economic
times by holding the line on our pricing.
It is important to note that customer feedback,
including that of our Customer Advisory Board, was
taken into account before the pricing changes were
implemented. In fact, since we mailed our pricing
notice to Dialog and Dialog DataStar customers in
January, customer feedback has been minimal. That
includes direct responses to Dialog, as well as commentary
on the major listservs, all of which we routinely
Several news and business searchers who are not
current Dialog subscribers but are who considering
evaluating your services in 2003 have expressed concern
that prices are being raised for news while comprehensive
newspaper sources continue to be removed, like The
Washington Post and LA Times. Are you
concerned that potential users evaluating your services
are getting the wrong message from this price increase?
The increase of our transaction list price for
an individual document to $2.95 is consistent with
other providers of this information. Interestingly
though, our customers are increasingly taking advantage
of other pricing options at Dialog, rather than paying
for a single news article at a time. With the launch
of Dialog NewsRoom and dialognewsroom.com, our customers
can now access over 7,500 sources of worldwide news,
wires, trade publications and business information
for one low monthly fee. In the same way, our NewsEdge
product line and our Advantage and Enterprise pricing
options allow customers to pay one predictable price
for news and business content on Dialog, depending
on their unique needs.
Regarding overall content availability on Dialog
or other services, this certainly varies over time.
In the past 2 years, we brought back a number of
files to Dialog, among them the Financial Times.
While we would prefer to have all of the content
that exists in a specialty area always available
on Dialog, that is not possible. Where we lose content,
for whatever reason, we will consistently work to
bring it back, particularly if it is strategic for
our customers and us and is premium in nature, such
as the two papers you mentioned.
However, it is important to note that with more
than 7,500 sources, our Dialog NewsRoom content is
broad and deep, and our partners are the leaders
in their field. For instance, in the business news
category, there are two acknowledged leaders with
global reach The New York Times in
the United States and the Financial Times in
Alerts in news files and interactive alerts have
increased in price for 2003, but most surprisingly
is the introduction of Alerts charges on the Dialog1,
DialogPRO, DialogSelect, and Toolkit platforms. Historically
the Alerts on those platforms have been free of charge,
although users only receive the titles and there
are no bundled records. What was the reason for eliminating
this as a free service?
As we've noted in our strategy statements regarding
pricing over the past 2 years, we've been working
to harmonize our pricing across platforms and standardize
our pricing options across all products. The Alerts
charges are modest for instance, the change
on the platforms you referenced is about $2/month/profile but
continue our efforts to eliminate confusion among
our customers about pricing on different platforms.
The fact that we do charge for Alerts on some platforms
but not on others has been more of a historical anomaly
than a conscious choice. We're making progress in
these efforts to standardize, but we have further
work to do.
Have the record pricing problems identified in
the NewsBreak article by Mary Ellen Bates been addressed
and how? If so, what caused these pricing errors?
I'm glad you brought that up, because much of the
information in that article was misleading or incorrect.
In the cases where the issues identified were correct,
they certainly have been addressed. Let me explain.
The tests indicated in that article were apparently
run either the day before the price changes were
actually implemented or within hours of these changes
being in place. The changes, which were due to go
into effect February 1, were actually implemented
in portions across a 48-hour period over that weekend
during down time periods for many of our customers,
as the 1st of February was a Saturday. It appears
that certain of the tests prematurely evaluated the
results due to a publication deadline. We have re-tested
all the points raised in the article, and there were
either no issues with these to begin with, or those
that were identified correctly have been addressed.
Can you explain the reasons for the elimination
of the free formats (6 and 8) from selected business
and patent files? Were these changes made at the
request of the information providers or by Dialog?
As a point of clarification, Formats 6 and 8 are
not "free formats," as they are already chargeable
on many Dialog files. With this price change, we
extended this to a selected number of patent files
and business files. The changes were once again an
extension of our plans to standardize and simplify
our pricing, as well as equate the price paid with
the value received. In some files, especially patent
and company information sources, Formats 6 and 8
provide significant value that goes far beyond browsing.
Moreover, given the increased ways in which searchers,
especially patent searchers, have been able to reduce
their search costs through other avenues we provide,
such as the use of connect time instead of DialUnits,
we think we continue to be positioned as a high-value
service versus other alternatives.
When we announced these changes, we did not expect
them to have a significant impact on the cost of
searching among our customers and still believe that
to be true.
We will continue to monitor user reaction to these
changes and understand their concerns. I also meet
with customers frequently on a one-to-one basis,
and such feedback is valued.
Unlike price increases in telecom or output, each
time there is a price increase in a search component,
information professionals need to modify their usage
habits and search strategies. Although the free formats
are considered output, most searchers use these formats
as part of their search strategy to help identify
which relevant records will be purchased. Does the
elimination of the free formats seem particularly
fair, especially considering that the most devoted
Dialog users have already dealt with modifying their
search habits as a result of the implementation of
DialUnits? What about in cases where the record titles
and table of contents are already freely available
on other systems, market research in particular?
I think the question overreaches. In our pricing,
we constantly seek the right balance in charging
for the value received. These are in fact output
formats, the changes are relatively minor, and any
significant changes in search components in the last
2 years since we announced our overall pricing strategy
have frequently resulted in price decreases to searchers.
The implementation of Connect Time as an alternative
to DialUnits comes to mind, which many users now
prefer as a real cost-effective way to search. The
changes in DialUnit calculations on DialogWeb, which
reduced the average search cost on that platform
by 45 percent in the past year, are another example.
Frankly, I don't view the changes you reference as
ones that fundamentally or strategically alter search
strategy methodologies or searching patterns on Dialog
for most users.
Patent searchers have been double-hit by this
price increase by the elimination of the free formats
in 12 patent files (now $.25 to $.50) and by the
implementation of a RANK charge in five patent files
($.02 /document). Considering Dialog is one of the
premier patent search systems, do you feel Dialog
is potentially alienating such an important segment
of its user base? Are you concerned that they may
transfer their usage to competing systems such as
STN, or other Thomson services such as Derwent or
No, certainly no more than I was before we announced
our pricing changes for 2003. If anything, given
the nature of our changes in the past 2 years, my
view is that we are more competitive from a pricing
perspective now than we have been in recent memory.
Matt, it is a fact that we continue to offer the
most comprehensive collection of intellectual property
information in the world on the Dialog service, with
more content from more providers than any other single
service and by a wide margin. We think it's
priced fairly and available in a variety of price
plans that allow users of all types and in all industries
to receive the service in virtually any manner they
desire in terms of how much they pay and for what.
For instance, patent files on Dialog are now available
for one fixed monthly fee, as announced last year.
So, if all you need are patent files for a low monthly
price, we can provide it. If you want a more comprehensive
array of IP content at a fixed monthly price across
the entire Dialog service, we can provide it. And
if you know what type of patent information you need
and don't want to pay search fees for this information,
you can use Dialog1 for patent searches where there
is no search fee charged. We also offer fixed-rate
packages for patent document delivery.
At any moment in time, particularly during times
when providers of online information services are
listening to customers and working toward positive
changes as we have been for the past 2 years, any
service and its pricing can be viewed out of context
without a full picture of improvements that have
been implemented. I believe our users largely understand
all of the positive changes that have been made in
Dialog content, functionality and pricing during
the past 24 months and respect us for them. Moreover,
our pricing is as competitive as any in the industry,
offering a range of pricing options to address customers'
Finally, what should Dialog users expect from
future price increases? Will there be an elimination
of additional free formats?
In 2001, we announced a comprehensive pricing strategy
and approach to our customers and to the market.
We said we would work to harmonize our pricing across
our various platforms, to provide more standard options
and less confusion. We said we would focus on trust
and value. Everything about what we have done during
the past 2 years is underscored by these two attributes.
We said we would work to simplify our pricing, which
we have done consistently. And we said we would migrate
more and more to an array of fixed price options
and subscription products, which we are doing and
will continue to do.
We will continue to apply our energy to these areas,
be responsive to customer feedback, and work to ensure
our pricing offers high value and is competitive.
Certainly, price changes are a fact of life in all
businesses, but we want our customers to be successful
and to use our service. With that in mind, we will
continue to strive to find the balance in our pricing
between "value received" and "price paid."
We know that if the price a customer is asked to
pay for Dialog does not equal the value that same
customer receives, or is out of sync with competing
alternatives, then our customers will not be happy.
We will continue to work to provide good value for
the price we ask for our service, and are pleased
that we could hold the line on our pricing in 2003.
DialUnits and Pricing Inconsistencies
Journals (File 748)
and Directory (File 286)
and Biotechnology Abstracts (File 315)
Newsbase (File 317)
Daily Backfile (File 194)
Daily (File 195)
Fulltext (File 229)
||ERIC (File 1)
Fulltext (File 348)
||GeoRef (File 89)
Legal Status (File 345)
Abstracts (File 74)
||LC MARC Books
Data Sheets OHS (File 332)
||New England Journal
of Medicine (File 444)
||PASCAL (File 144)
||PIERS Exports (U.S.
Ports) (File 571)
||PIERS Imports (U.S.
Ports) (File 573)
||PIERS MEXICO EXPORTS
||PIERS MEXICO IMPORTS
Paper, Printing and Publishing, Imaging and Nonwovens
Abstracts) (File 248)
||Population Demographics (File
||Prous Science Drug
News & Perspectives (File 455)
||Public Opinion Online
(POLL) (File 468)
|421, 422, 423, 424,
||REMARC (File 421,422,423,424,425)
||South American Business
Information Backfile (File 817)
||South American Business
Information (File 617)
of the History of Art® (File 190)
||The Merck Index
OnlineSM (File 304)
Information Services (TRIS) (File 63)
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Fulltext (File 349)
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