the World Wide Web contributes to the creation of a global economy has
become accepted as fact. But what resources exist for businesspeople interested
in learning about the larger world and the people who inhabit it? What
Web site, for example, provides the international businessperson with an
understanding of Japanese culture, including business etiquette? What online
resources exist to prepare business students to step onto the global stage
and play the role of a successful entrepreneur who understands not only
the business market of Nigeria, but also its cultural milieu? Where can
one find a discussion of multicultural, diversity issues at the university
level? And even if you understand the customs, what about the language?
Is there software for your computer or PDA that translates Web sites from
French to English? Not surprisingly, the World Wide Web provides answers
to all these questions.
While the term
"global village" conjures up visions of one people, one planet, nothing
could be further from the truth. Multiculturalism is a fact of business
life. In international business, national characteristics and cultural
norms make for an environment fraught with peril for those naïve enough
to assume that people are just people and that issues like time consciousness,
negotiation styles, and social formality are the same the world over. For
example, Americans traditionally put people at ease through their friendliness
and informality. By contrast, Europeans are more formal not only in their
dress, but also in their manner. In an informal business gathering, Europeans
often interpret the Americans' easy-going approach as evidence that we
do not consider either the meeting or the people very important1.
Consequently, many international corporations like Sun Microsystems, EDS,
and IBM provide cross-cultural training to employees posted to other countries.
For an overview
of how to greet one's Japanese business counterpart, one can learn the
subtleties of business exchanges at http://www.gate39.com/business/bizetiquette.htm.
According to Richard Bysouth, Japan is a country with a "strong sense of
hierarchy [and] many unwritten laws regarding etiquette and manners that
apply to the business world."2
Even offering your business card is steeped in Japanese tradition. According
to Bysouth, one should always present one's business card to the recipient
using both hands, holding onto the corners as you pass it forward, stating
your name and company as you do so.
resource for a country's political, economic, and cultural ethos is the
U.S. State Department's Country Commercial Guides (CCGs) Index [http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guides/].3
Click on "2001" to obtain a regional directory to the countries of the
world. Japan's Country Commercial Guide, for example, contains information
on Japanese business customs, as well as a lengthy discussion on the current
political and economic climate in Japan.4
The 2001 Country Commercial Guide works with Adobe Acrobat software, downloadable
at no charge from the Adobe Web site [http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html].
Prepared annually by U.S. embassy staff and other government agencies,
Country Commercial Guides are available for most of the countries of the
world. Now go back to the State Department's home page and under "Countries
and Regions," click on "Country Background Notes" for additional discussion
of the political, business, and cultural conditions in many countries of
The U.S. Department
of Commerce (DOC) is another important site for business people [http://www.doc.gov/].
There you will find a wealth of information on the ways to navigate the
various government requirements for trading with foreign countries. The
International Trade Administration, a department of the DOC, provides vital
information about market access to Russia and its newly independent states,
Africa, free trade zones of the Americas, Japan, and the Central and Eastern
Europe Business Information Center (CEEBICnet) [http://www.trade.gov/MACFrameset.html].
Click on the CEEBICnet link to access a variety of resources for conducting
business in the region. There are Regional Resources for market research,
small business support, key contacts, and U.S. Embassy reports. Click on
any of the Country Resources links for detailed information and resources
for conducting business in that country. Under Croatia, for example, they
provide additional links and information on how to export to Croatia, market
research on Croatia, the latest economic and commercial news, U.S. companies
in Croatia, and other valuable information. The DOC can greatly aid the
businessperson or the business traveler interested in developing trade
or in simply developing a more complete picture of a region or country.
but subscription-based Web site, for business travelers is the International
Business Reports for Corporate Intranets [http://www.worldbiz.com/library.html].
Here you will find a list of the world's major countries with reports on
"individual business practices, business customs, protocol, negotiating,
cross-cultural communication, business entertainment, gift-giving, social
etiquette" forms. While the subscription model ranges from 3 days to 3
months to 1 year, the annual cost to access all of the countries in this
database is $1,800.
country studies, one can also explore at no charge the Library of Congress
Country Studies [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html].
These are actually books originally published between 1987 and 1998 and
now online full-text. Click on "Browse" to view a list of the countries
available. Clicking on Mexico, for example, brings up a table of contents
that includes discussion of all aspects of Mexico from its history to the
current structure of its society.
understand that one of the keys to productivity is a motivated workforce.
International businesses are especially sensitive to multicultural issues
that affect employees from a variety of racial, ethnic, national, and international
backgrounds. EDS, an international corporation with 70,000 employees in
30 countries, teaches employees the value of multicultural sensitivity.
EDS's program, Workforce Diversity, insures that employees in every EDS
office around the world understand the diversity issues affecting a specific
country's particular workforce. Where U.S. employees might focus on racial
and gender diversity issues, in other countries, Workforce Diversity programs
may center on the bitterness between social classes following a civil war
or perhaps a history of tension between two ethnic groups.
and Digital Equipment Corporation also provide employee training in communicating
and managing across cultures. As former Assistant Secretary of Labor, Cari
M. Dominguez, observed, "Corporations are looking for people who are not
only talented and accomplished in their field, but also comfortable with
other cultures and fluent in languages. They want someone who will blend
in and be sensitive to traditions that may be different than in America."5
For Tomorrow's Businessperson
may also benefit from the global perspective of the United Nations' Web
which can be explored in English, French, Chinese, Russian, Spanish, or
Arabic. At the home page, click "Member States" to visit the home pages
of member states such as Bangladesh, where one will find information on
the history and customs of the country, as well as links to trade organizations.
schools and business students have a multinational and multicultural focus.
The Internet has created a global market that ranges from individuals selling
tie clasps from their home in Australia to corporations selling airplane
supply parts in Southern California. According to IZAR.com, a global Web
site translation consultant, "By 2003 two-thirds of the worldwide online
users will reside outside the U.S." Business schools are responding to
this new reality by training students to create and seize global online
business opportunities and to conduct business from any country. Many U.S.
schools now offer a master's of International Business (MIB) that attracts
both American and international students. Americans have the opportunity
to immerse themselves in a foreign language and culture in preparation
for, in some cases, a year-long internship studying and working for an
international firm. And international students prepare themselves in their
home country (and in the U.S.) for study at American universities and internships
with U.S. corporations. At Pepperdine University, where this writer is
employed, students in the MIB program at the Graziadio School of Business
and Management begin their preparation for international business internships
through intense study of the country's business culture, national and regional
institutions, and language fluency. The vast majority of MBA programs offer
a concentration in International Business.
Created by the
U.S. Congress to internationalize teaching and research programs at graduate
business schools in the United States, the Center for International Business
Education and Research (CIBER) is a remarkable resource for business students
and business professionals [http://ciber.centers.purdue.edu].
Twenty-eight universities make up CIBER and serve as national and regional
resources for businesspeople, university faculty members, and graduate
students. A list and map of the 28 university centers appear at http://ciber.centers.purdue.edu/local_cibers/main.html.
CIBER centers share information on scholarly publications by faculty; business
outreach activities in their respective communities; research, curriculum,
and language programs.
students, as well as business professionals with a global focus, will find
many university Web sites excellent resources for learning about international
business and multiculturalism. The Foster Business Library at the University
of Washington has created an invaluable Web site with links to 46 academic
business libraries across the nation [http://www.lib.washington.edu/business/abl.html].
Business libraries collect useful links to business resources. For example,
Michigan State University has a wonderful meta-site for international business
Links include "Regional/Country Specific Information," "News and Periodicals"
(both global and country specific), world stock exchanges, government resources,
and culture and language resources. Cultural and Language resources link
to a Web site that includes topics such as "Global Business Etiquette,"
"Business Netiquette International," "The Web of Culture-Cross Cultural
Communication," and "International Holidays Around the World," to name
just a few.
Library offers an invaluable Web site with links to "International Government
Virtually every corner of the globe is represented. So one can go to Andean
Community in South America, for example, and find links to chambers of
commerce, industrial associations, and government requirements for trading
with Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela [http://www.comunidadandina.org/english.htm].
Are you interested in researching the business or investment opportunities
in the emerging Vietnamese market? The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEG) network provides valuable information to compare with the assessment
found in the U.S. State Department's Country Commercial Guides [http://www.apecsec.org.sg/].
Northwestern University has presented all of us with a great gift.
sites also offer businesspeople a wealth of information and insight into
different cultures and races and how they view the world. While this knowledge
may be of value from a business marketing perspective, it also enlarges
one's understanding of the world, which has value in itself. The University
of Maryland has a Diversity Database with links to a host of topics in
the area [http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/Topic/Diversity/General/Internet/].
As business students need to become students of culture, they should find
the University of Maryland's Diversityweb [http://www.diversityweb.org/],
an interesting site for discussion of multiculturalism issues in the workplace,
Library of Congress area studies on diversity, cross-cultural communication,
and particularly Diversity2000.com
Created by Computer
Consulting Associates International, Inc., Diversity 2000 [http://www.div2000.com/]
is worth noting for its function as an "Information Center for Multicultural
Owned Businesses and Fortune 1000 Companies." Calling itself "an online
hub for supplier diversity" the Web site connects Women and Minority [owned]
Business Enterprises (W/MBEs) with business contacts inside the Fortune
1000 companies. Having both suppliers and buyers sharing access to each
other's databases brings W/MBE suppliers and Fortune 1000 buyers together.
Suppliers and buyers can register their firms at no charge. Recently, 50,000
W/MBEs voted American Express as the premier company promoting multicultural
business opportunities. Other companies near the top of the list include
IBM, Boeing, Microsoft, 3Com, Wal-Mart, and Cisco Systems.
and entrepreneurs should have access to historical materials that reflect
the growing multicultural, multiracial world we live in. For a refreshingly
iconoclastic view of African American and Native American history, Will
Karkavelas' Multicultural Resources on the Internet contains a mixed
bag of documents and services for and about African and Native Americans.
These texts include poetry, oral histories, even links to PBS programs
like Africans in America. There are book reviews, author interviews,
oral narratives, even legal and other social resources available to Native
and professionals can better appreciate from a multicultural perspective
the unique history of the Western United States at the Web site of the
American Studies Program at Washington State University. Devoted to the
past and present history of the Western part of the United States, the
Web site includes resources about the contributions made by Native Americans,
African Americans, Asian and Pacific peoples, Chicanos and Latinos, European
Americans, and women in the West. The site links to literary texts and
Western literature, online articles, reviews, online discussion groups,
courses and syllabi, bibliographies, art museums and galleries, scholarly
associations, libraries, popular culture and folklore, and natural history
The Web site for
the California Ethnic and Multicultural Archives at the University of California
at Santa Barbara [http://www.library.ucsb.edu/speccoll/cema/]
has not only a useful collection of primary documents that chronicle the
"cultural and political experiences of African American, Asian American,
Chicano/Hispanic, and Native Americans in California," but also links to
additional Web resources like the Chicano/Latino Net [http://latino.sscnet.ucla.edu/],
Japanese American History Archives, and the Schomburg Center for Research
in Black Culture.
can also learn much about other cultures by examining Susan A. Vega Garcia's
brilliant "Diversity and Ethnic Studies Recommended Websites and Research
Guides" at Iowa State University [http://www.public.iastate.edu/~savega/divweb2.htm].
This is an excellent collection of online directories, index sites, clearinghouses,
portals, e-journals, subject directories, and library research guides for
African Americans, Asian Americans, Gay/Lesbians, U.S. Latinos, and American
Even if looking
at the world through the eyes of another culture or another race were only
just good business sense, one hopes it will always have the unintended
effect of enlarging one's appreciation for the shared values of humanity:
mutual respect and trust, profit through ethical transactions, meaningful
work, and shared goals — all the values that expand communities, global
Gary M. "Managing Cultural Differences: Challenges for Americans Doing
Business in Europe." Site Selection, Dec. 1997/Jan. 1998, 1104-1109.
Richard (12/17/2000). Japanese Business Etiquette — An Overview. http://www.gate39.com/business/bizetiquette.htm.
Last accessed 5/18/2001.
State Department. Country Commercial Guide. http://www.state.gov/.
Last accessed 5/18/2001.
Commercial Guide: Japan (2001). http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guides/2001/eap/index.html.
Last accessed 5/14/2001.
Michele A. "Managing Global Diversity." Hispanic, vol. 6, Issue
5, June 1993, page 66.
Fink's e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org