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Magazines > Searcher > July / August 2003
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Vol. 11 No. 7 — July/August 2003
Online Before the Internet: Early Pioneers Tell Their Stories, Part 2
by Susanne Bjørner Bjørner & Associates
& Stephanie C. Ardito Ardito Information & Research, Inc.

Who's Who: Key People in this Installment

This list does not include all the names mentioned by Carlos Cuadra, Roger Summit, and Dick Kollin in their conversation. Please see the printed article beginning on page 36 of the July/August issue, especially under "Pioneers and Innovators," for additional people key to the development of online.

Avram, Henriette D. — 1965-1991: Held various positions at the Library of Congress; in 1970, she was the key person who developed the Machine Readable Cataloging (MARC) format for the exchange of bibliographic data. MARC became the U.S. standard in 1971 and an international standard (UNIMARC) in 1973.

Bilboul, Roger — 1977: Started the publishing company, Learned Information (now part of the VNU group) and created the first International Online (now called Online Information) meeting in London. Currently Chairman of the Board, Information Today, Inc.

Bourne, Charles — 1977-1992: Vice President, General Information Division, Dialog Information Services.

Brownson, Helen — Originally a secretary to Vannevar Bush at MIT and later the Director, National Science Foundation, Office of Scientific Information. Instrumental in funding information science projects, including the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST).

Burchinal, Lee — 1965-1973: U.S. Office of Education; developed the guiding principles for the ERIC Clearinghouses in 1966.

Cummings, Martin — 1964-1984: Director, National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Davis, Ruth — 1967-1968: Associate Director, Research and Development, National Library of Medicine (NLM). 1968-1970: Director, Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications. 1970-1977: Director, Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, National Bureau of Standards.

Day, Melvin Sherman — 1946-1958: Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) at Oak Ridge. 1960-1962: NASA. 1971: National Science Foundation (NSF). 1972: National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Egeland, Janet — Worked with Irwin Pizer in the Biomedical Communication Network (SUNY BCN); in 1976, with Ron Quake, turned the service into the commercial Bibliographic Retrieval Services (BRS).

Garfield, Eugene — 1960-1992: Founder, President, and CEO, Institute for Scientific Information; currently Chairman Emeritus.

Giering, Richard — 1967-1978: Data Corporation and Mead Data Central (both part of the Mead Corporation). Designed and managed the implementation of the first full-text, interactive database system, later known as LexisNexis.

Gull, Cloyd Dake — 1945-1952: Library of Congress (LC). 1947: First demonstrated the use of punched cards and machines to create LC catalog cards. 1958-1963: Consultant, GE Information Systems Operations. 1964-1967: Professor, Library School, Indiana University. 1967-1968: Officer, NLM Task Force on Automation. Died in 2003.

Hines, Theodore C. — Taught library and information science at Rutgers, Columbia University, and the University of North Carolina at Greensboro; died in 1983.

Hlava, Marjorie — 1978-date: Founder, President, and Chairman, Access Innovations, Inc. Has published more than 200 articles and books on natural language processing, machine translations, and machine aided indexing.

Hyams, Montague (Monty) — 1951: Founded Derwent Information, a patent documentation publishing company. Derwent World Patents Index database was introduced in 1974, and in 1976, WPI became one of the first databases on the SDC ORBIT service. In the early 1980s, WPI was added to Dialog and Questel.

Katter, Bob — Head, ORBIT programming, Systems Development Corporation (SDC). 1968-1970: co-developed the ELHILL retrieval system, which provided access to the MEDLINE database.

Kilgour, Fred — 1967-1980: Founder, President, and Executive Director of Ohio College Library Center and later, Online Computer Library Center (OCLC).

Luhn, Hans Peter — 1941-1961: worked at IBM. In 1958, Luhn's interest in applying machines to literature data processing led to his development of Key Word in Context (KWIC) indexing and Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI). Died in 1964.

McCarn, Davis — In a career beginning in 1967 at the National Library of Medicine (NLM), McCarn managed the development of MEDLINE and designed Grateful Med. Died in 2000.

Mooers, Calvin — Work on the classification of scientific information led to his invention, in 1947, of Zatocoding, an information retrieval system using punch cards. In 1948, he coined the phrases "information retrieval" and "descriptors" to describe his work. Died in 1994.

Pemberton, Jeffery K. — 1970-1975: Marketing Manager, New York Times Information Bank. 1976-2002: Co-founder (with his wife Jenny) and President of Online, Inc., publisher of ONLINE and DATABASE (now EContent) magazines. Organized first (1979) ONLINE conference held in U.S., held subsequently each year in the autumn through 2000.

Pizer, Irwin — As Director, SUNY Health Sciences Library, in 1968, began the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network (SUNY BCN), which evolved into the commercial system, Bibliographic Retrieval Services (BRS).

Quake, Ron — With Jan Egeland in 1976, commercialized the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network (SUNY BCN) into Bibliographic Retrieval Services (BRS).

Roberts, Lawrence — From 1966, led the design and development of ARPANET. 1973-1980: Founder and CEO, Telenet, the first packet-switching utility.

Rubin, Jerome (Jerry) — 1970-1971: Executive Vice President, Mead Data Central. 1971-1981: President, Mead Data Central, owner of LexisNexis.

Taube, Mortimer — 1947-1949: Chief, Science and Technology, Library of Congress. 1952: Founded company, Documentation, Inc. Established the COSATI system for technical reports. Proposed the Uniterm Indexing System, in which documents could be represented by a term from the title or abstract of a document, versus indexing and subject terms, to describe the content of a document. Died in 1965.

Williams, Martha — 1957-1972: IIT Research Institute (established fee-based, batch computer search services in 1968). 1972-1999: Director, Information Retrieval Research Lab, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 1974-date: Professor, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 1976-1989: Editor-in-chief, Computer-Readable Databases Directory and Data Sourcebook. 1976-2001: Editor, Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST). 1980-2001: Program Chairman, National Online Meeting, sponsored by Information Today and held in New York City each spring.

Wente, Van — 1960s: Directed systems development for Melvin Day at NASA, designing the strategy for the online retrieval system, NASA/RECON.

Wolpert, Sam — Founder and developer of the Predicasts system of indexing and the PROMT database.

Zurkowski, Paul — Founded the Information Industry Association (IIA) in 1968 and served as President from 1972-1989.

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