What's What: Key Names, Acronyms, and Abbreviations
A-76 Memo Codification of the federal policy stating
that the government should not compete with its citizens (private business);
sets forth procedures for determining whether activities should be performed
under contract with commercial sources or in-house using government facilities
and personnel. Originally promulgated through Bureau of the Budget Bulletins
issued in 1955, 1957, and 1960. OMB Circular No. A-76 was issued in 1966
and has been revised frequently since.
ABI/INFORM Business information database co-developed
by Greg Payne, Dennis Auld, and Jerry Dick in 1971; now owned by ProQuest
Information and Learning.
ADI American Documentation Institute, predecessor to
API American Petroleum Institute. Ev Brenner managed
the Central Abstracting & Indexing Service of the American Petroleum
Institute for 30 years. Its early databases (APIPAT and APILIT) were originally
on Orbit and today survive as WPAM on Questel-Orbit.
ASIS American Society for Information Science. Founded
in 1937 as the American Documentation Institute (ADI). Name changed to ASIS
in 1968 and to the American Society for Information Science and Technology
(ASIST) in 2000.
BRS Bibliographic Retrieval Services, begun as a commercial
outgrowth of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network in 1976. In 1994,
BRS was purchased by Ovid Technologies. In 1998, Wolters Kluwer bought Ovid.
CA SEARCH: Chemical Abstracts Chemical database, variously
known as CA Condensates and Chem Abs; produced by American Chemical Society.
CAB ABSTRACTS A database of agricultural information,
originally produced by the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (U.K.) and now
by CAB International (CABI).
CD-ROM Compact Disk, Read-Only Memory, a durable medium
of digital content popularized in the mid-1980s as a controlled price subscription
alternative to online transactions.
COSATI Committee on Scientific and Technical Information;
sponsor of a 1968 demonstration to the U.S. government of interactive data-handling
Data Central One of the online systems shown at the
COSATI demonstration by Dick Giering of Data Corporation. It later became
part of Mead Data Central and led to the LexisNexis system.
Derwent World Patents Index Database produced by Derwent
Information, U.K.; now a part of Thomson Derwent.
ERIC Educational Research Information Center, a database
sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education.
Excerpta Medica EMBASE, a database provided by Elsevier
Science B.V. (Netherlands).
Information Industry Association (IIA) Founded in 1968
by seven member companies "to build the information industry"; merged with
Software Publishers Association in 1999 to form the Software and Information
Industry Association (SIIA).
INSPEC Produced by IEE (U.K.) as the database for Physics,
Electronics and Computing) and corresponding to the print Science Abstracts.
MARC Machine Readable Cataloging, an interchange format
for bibliographic data. MARC became a U.S. standard in 1971 and an international
standard (UNIMARC) in 1973.
Mead Data Central An early subsidiary of the Mead Corporation,
a paper production company, formed by Mead's acquisition of Data Corporation;
owner of Data Central, an early online system. Became LexisNexis, now owned
by Reed Elsevier.
MEDLINE Medical Literature, Analysis, and Retrieval
System Online (originally known as MEDLARS and operated as a system by NLM,
the U.S. National Library of Medicine). Records are indexed by the medical
NASA/RECON REmote CONsole. NASA's "first multi-site" online
bibliographic system, created in 1968.
National Agricultural Library (NAL) A database, now
called AGRICOLA, produced by the U.S. government library.
NLM National Library of Medicine. Publisher of Index
Medicus, comprising the content of MEDLINE and PubMed; also produces the
MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) taxonomy.
NSF National Science Foundation. Established by Congress
in 1950. During the 1950s and 1960s, NSF funded a number of significant information
NTIS Database provided by the National Technical Information
Service, U.S. Department of Commerce.
OCLC Founded as Ohio College Library Center, originally
to provide cooperative cataloging; now known as OCLC (Online Computer Library
Center), a worldwide, multiservice organization.
Predicasts Using Sam Wolpert's detailed Predicasts
indexing system, the PROMT (Predicasts Overview of Markets and Technology)
database and F&S Index became two of the earliest sources of business
information online. Ownership of PROMT has gone from Predicasts to Information
Access Company and now resides with Gale Group.
Psychological Abstracts Database produced by the American
Psychological Association; now known as PsycINFO.
SUNY Biomedical Communication Network Online bibliographic
retrieval service developed by Irwin Pizer at SUNY Upstate Medical Library
in 1968. In 1976, Jan Egeland and others commercialized the service, which
became known as Bibliographic Retrieval Services (BRS).
Telenet First packet data communications carrier. Sold
to GTE in 1979, subsequently becoming the data division of Sprint.
TRADELINE Tradeline and Tradeline International, offering
historical financial information provided by Tradeline.com; available via
a gateway service from Dialog and searchable via Tradeline.com protocols.
Tymnet Commercial computer network, created by Tymshare,
Inc., and used for remote login and file transfer. The public network went
live in November 1971.